Venous Reflux

In normal veins blood flows up the leg, assisted by vein valves. In abnormal varicose veins there is downward blood flow which is called venous reflux. This reflux creates congestion of blood inside the veins and is what causes the aching, itching, heaviness, and swelling associated with varicose veins.

When vein valves fail, venous reflux develops, and varicose veins appear.